â€œThere are many favorable factors for the development of China's equipment manufacturing industry. The key is to see how to make better use of it.â€ Mechanical Industry Information at the "Million Village Forum: Mechanical Workers Think Tank Spring Conference" sponsored by the Institute of Mechanical Industry Information on March 23. Wang Wenbin, president of the Institute, pointed out that the equipment manufacturing industry has become the main battlefield of global manufacturing value reconstruction, competitive landscape change, and innovation-driven. â€
â€œThe global new manufacturing competition is being reshaped, and unipolar will change to multipolarity. The equipment manufacturing industry will become the main driving force for economic development in the next 10 years, and manufacturing will once again become the commanding height of global economic competition.â€ Institute of Machinery Industry Information Shi Yong, the deputy dean, said in an interview with this reporter.
At the meeting, the organizers released the first series of research results of the â€œMechanical think tankâ€ for the first time. Research shows that, through the layout of smart high-end industries, the speed and magnitude of rebound of US equipment manufacturing industry far exceed that of Germany and Japan. The â€œOne Belt and One Roadâ€ strategy has brought opportunities for international cooperation in the equipment manufacturing industry. It is suggested that the â€œBelt and Roadâ€ and â€œFriendship Circleâ€ be actively constructed to provide accurate cooperation and help equipment â€œgo globalâ€.
Manufacturing has once again become the commanding heights of global economic competition
â€œAccording to predictions, after the 24th Winter Olympic Games in 2022, 300 million people in China will engage in skiing. However, at present snow-making machines in China are almost all dependent on imports. In fact, Chinese snow-making machines are at minus 10 In time, the performance is not worse than foreign countries, but when it is zero, it becomes a watering machine. And Israeli snow makers can make snow at 30 degrees above zero,â€ Shi Yong told the reporter.
China's equipment manufacturing industry started after the founding of New China. Wang Wenbin said that up to now, it has developed into a mature industry with large scale, complete system, a certain level, ability to participate in international competition, and basic guarantee of national economic development. However, he also stated that China's equipment manufacturing industry is still in the stage of catching up with the advanced level compared with the international giants. Rough development, lack of core capabilities, and inadequate supply are all affecting the pace of industrial advancement.
â€œEquipment manufacturing is a strategic industry for the national economy. The level of equipment represents the technical level of a country, and the strong equipment is a strong country.â€ Wang Wenbin said, â€œIn the future, there are many favorable factors for the development of Chinaâ€™s equipment manufacturing industry, and the domestic market has great potential. With abundant funds and abundant human resources, the key lies in how we develop and how to make better use of it. The regionalization of international trade, the domesticization of equipment manufacturing, and the closure of core technologies certainly have disadvantages. We Chinese are humane and we have always had It is based on self-reliance to develop our own. As long as we make full use of our favorable conditions, as long as we unswervingly follow the path of innovation and development, the prospects for the development of China's equipment manufacturing industry will certainly be bright."
The economic operation prosperity index and export index of China's equipment manufacturing industry released by the â€œMechanics and think tanksâ€ show that in the short term, the downward pressure on Chinaâ€™s equipment manufacturing economy is still very large, and exports are still in a contraction period; in the medium term, during the â€œ13th Five-Year Planâ€ period, The situation of high growth before low and low, and in the long term, by 2025, the scale of China's equipment manufacturing industry will now account for 35% of the global 30%, and the ratio of high-end equipment manufacturing to equipment and manufacturing will increase from the current 20% to over 35%. Exports account for more than 20% of global trade.
Shi Yong told reporters that the equipment manufacturing industry will become the main driving force for economic development in the next 10 years, and the manufacturing industry will once again become the commanding height of global economic competition. Equipment manufacturing industry still has a lot of room for development in China. First, the proportion of manufacturing industry is still very low. Second, there is a huge market demand.
Specifically, China has 39 industrial categories, 191 medium and 525 sub-categories, and it is the only country in the world that has all industrial categories in the UN industry classification. The completeness of the United States is only about 94% of China, and Japan is less than 90% of China.
The relatively complete industrial chain provides a systematic competitiveness for China's equipment manufacturing industry. China has more than 140,000 machinery suppliers, 75,000 communications and equipment manufacturers, and 104,000 transportation equipment manufacturers. The scale of supplier networks More than five times Japan.
"The path for the future development of China's equipment manufacturing industry, the "China Manufacturing 2025" promulgated by the State Council, has made a comprehensive plan. As long as we contact each other to implement the actual and conscientious implementation will certainly achieve a multiplier effect." Wang Wenbin believes that at this stage, from the industry and For enterprises, there are two things that need to be resolved first.
The first is to make great efforts to nurture industrial culture, so that all participants in the industry can earnestly and rigorously do a good job in every detail, quickly improve the quality and reliability of equipment products, and truly allow users to use our confidence. product.
The second is to make full use of automation and intelligent technology, let our factory from the production line to automatic manufacturing, flexible manufacturing, intelligent manufacturing development, and gradually build a smart factory; make full use of the Internet and information technology in the industry to develop the industrial Internet, so that consulting, development Resources such as integration, manufacturing, support, and distribution can be optimally configured and fully utilized, and the virtual manufacturing ecosystem can be gradually built to rapidly increase the resource utilization efficiency of equipment manufacturing and supply of equipment products, and continue to seize the domestic market.
From a global perspective, the financial crisis has brought severe impact on the equipment manufacturing industry in developed countries, but the speed and magnitude of the rebound of the US equipment manufacturing industry far exceed that of Germany and Japan. At the meeting, the research group leader and researcher Yan Enmin explained that â€œthe impact of American reindustrialization on the global and Chinaâ€™s equipment manufacturing industryâ€ points out that the speed and magnitude of the US equipment manufacturing rebound will even surpass that of Germany and far exceed that of Japan. This benefits from They actively lay out emerging areas and high-end sectors. High-end industries are the key to maintaining the current development and sustained prosperity in the United States. These industries can best support innovation, inclusiveness, and sustainable growth.
Yan Enmin pointed out that at present, intelligent manufacturing has become the dominant factor in the new industrial revolution. Korea aims to promote the competitiveness of Korean manufacturing industry, and actively promotes the integration of manufacturing and information technology (ICT). It plans to build 10,000 smart production plants by 2020, 1/3 of the total number of factories in South Korea with more than 20 employees. All are transformed into smart factories. Japan released the "New Strategy for Robotics" and put forward three core goals: "the world's robot innovation base", "the world's first robot application country", "towards the world's leading new era of robotics," Japan's manufacturing white paper proposed to pay attention to Industrial big data and industrial Internet application promotion. In the United States, the integration of information technology and smart manufacturing technology is currently being promoted, and an intelligent manufacturing technology platform is being built to promote the industrialization and engineering of smart manufacturing. Germany implements the Industry 4.0 strategy, of which Smart Factory and Smart Production are the two major themes of 4.0. The German government attaches particular importance to industrial standards and smart manufacturing infrastructure.
"Industry 4.0, the essence of intelligent manufacturing is automation." At the meeting, Zhang Yan, head of the research group and associate researcher explained the "strategic choice from the industry 2.0 to the industry 4.0", and expounded and analyzed the issues related to the development of automation in China. It explains the successful experience of promoting the development of industrial automation in the United States, Japan, and Taiwan region of China. At the same time, according to the current status of industrial development in China, it proposes suggestions for promoting the development of industrial automation.
Accurately Positioning "Friend Circle" and Effectively Developing "Equipment Diplomacy"
Countries and regions along the â€œOne Belt and One Roadâ€ region have a huge market demand for equipment manufacturing. In the future, the demand for energy equipment and infrastructure such as railways, pipelines, airports, ports, nuclear power, and telecommunications will continue to grow. In addition, the demand for infrastructure construction, supporting facilities and equipment, related industrial equipment, and people's livelihood equipment is also huge. Zhao Fengjie, head of the research group and associate researcher, introduced the results of the "strategic research on the "Belt and Road Initiative" of the equipment manufacturing industry." It is suggested that precise cooperation, networking, and "equipment diplomacy" be carried out.
Zhao Fengjie believes that China's equipment manufacturing industry has many conditions and opportunities to participate in the "Belt and Road." The first is that China has the five major advantages of going out of the equipment manufacturing industry.
One is the scale advantage. China has become the world's largest equipment manufacturing country, and its scale has continued to expand and it ranks first in the world.
The second is export advantages. In recent years, China's equipment manufacturing industry has enjoyed a steady growth in exports. The proportion of exports in the global scale has increased from 0.16% in 1980 to 3.14% in 2000 and 17.54% in 2014. According to Oxford Economic Research Institute, China's equipment products will maintain its position as the largest export commodity category for a long time.
The third is the advantages of high-end industries. In recent years, high-end equipment has become a "business card" for China's foreign propaganda. According to statistics of the Asian Development Bank, in 2014, the proportion of high-tech products such as medical equipment, aviation and communications equipment exported by China to Asian high-tech products had increased from 9.4% in 2000 to 43.7%. System solutions to solve the advantages gradually appear.
Fourth, the industrial categories are complete. China has become the only country in the world that has all the industrial categories in the UN industrial classification. The industrial chain is relatively complete, providing systematic competitiveness for equipment going out.
Fifth, the ecological system is relatively complete, with comparative advantages such as cost, market response speed, and services. For example, within two hours drive from Shenzhen, there are more than 1,000 electrical manufacturers, more than 300 garment manufacturers, more than 2,000 electronic manufacturers, more than 1300 material manufacturers, and nearly 10 million laborers, with an order of magnitude advantage and A well-developed ecosystem has enabled Shenzhen's handset manufacturers to reduce the prototype development cost of common function phones by 1/6-1/4, and prototype development time by 1/7 to 1/5.
"One Belt and One Road" is an important channel for resolving structural overcapacity in equipment manufacturing. Zhao Fengjie said that in addition to the huge industrial scale, a relatively complete industrial chain also provides systematic competitiveness for the Chinese equipment manufacturing industry to go global. The implementation of the â€œOne Belt and One Roadâ€ strategy will help to connect Chinaâ€™s advantageous production capacity with the development needs of related countries, digest a batch of export products, and transfer a batch of advantageous production capacity.
"The implementation of the 'One Belt and One Road' strategy will have a major impact on the global industrial layout, and may break the existing global value chain oriented by developed countries. Through the output of the entire industry chain, close supply and demand, and gradually form the core of China. Global manufacturing value network.â€ Zhao Fengjie said that in the â€œOne Belt and One Roadâ€, Chinaâ€™s equipment manufacturing industry should accurately position its â€œfriendship circleâ€ in international cooperation and carry out effective cooperation.
Zhao Fengjie said that from the scale of equipment manufacturing, Chinaâ€™s â€œfriendship circleâ€ on the â€œOne Belt and One Roadâ€ is divided into four levels: Countries with imports greater than US$10 billion fall into the category of â€œlocal tyrantsâ€ in the circle of Chinese friends, including Russia and India. , Singapore, Thailand and other 10 countries; countries with import volumes ranging from US$1 billion to US$10 billion are classified as â€œhigh-yieldâ€, including 19 countries such as Poland, Saudi Arabia, Hungary, and Iran; import value is from US$100 million to US$1 billion The countries with the U.S. dollar belong to the "middle class" category, including 30 countries such as Mongolia, Estonia, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan; those with imports less than 100 million U.S. dollars belong to the category of "low production", including five countries such as Montenegro and East Timor. She suggested that for â€œlocal tyrantsâ€ and â€œhigh-yieldâ€ friends, we should identify the industry chain short boards, carry out close cooperation, and increase the degree of dependence on Chinaâ€™s needs. We can achieve value Chains by building new industrial zones and creating economic corridors. derivative.
From the perspective of imports of equipment manufacturing products, Chinaâ€™s â€œfriendship circleâ€ on the â€œBelt and Roadâ€ is divided into three levels. Countries with an import share of more than 30% belong to the â€œdeep crossâ€ level of the Chinese circle of friends, including Tajikistan and Myanmar. , Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam and other 9 countries; import countries with a ratio of 10% to 30% are â€œgeneralâ€ grades, including 38 countries including Iran, India, Kyrgyzstan, and Turkmenistan; imports account for less than 10% The country belongs to the "shallow" class, including 17 countries including Georgia, East Timor, and Azerbaijan.
She suggested that according to the dependence of the importing countries on China's equipment manufacturing industry, it is necessary to â€œdefineâ€ friends, maintain good cooperative relations, expand the scale of exports, and build a three-dimensional export model of â€œproduct + service + technologyâ€. For â€œshallowâ€ and â€œlow-yieldâ€ friends, the capital chain is used to pull the industry chain, investment is used to drive trade, and projects are used to drive companies and products to go global.
Zhao Fengjie also stated that the equipment manufacturing industry should take risks in the construction of the â€œBelt and Road Initiativeâ€. For example, in terms of intellectual property risk, in many areas of China's equipment manufacturing industry, the patent distribution is far from being in place, and enterprises are facing threats by â€œgoing outâ€. The latest statistical data show that in recent years, the â€œ337 investigationâ€ case initiated by the US International Trade Commission for companies entering the US market, 32.2% of the defendants are Chinese companies, of which more than 90% involve patent rights.
For another example, we must guard against the risk of lack of combat capability of the legion. The infrastructure construction and industrial environment of some countries along the â€œOne Belt and One Roadâ€ are backward, and it is difficult for equipment manufacturing companies to achieve individual combat effectiveness in the short term, and they will even be exposed to greater risks. Therefore, there is a need to strengthen vertical industrial chain cooperation and horizontal inter-industry cooperation. All types of enterprises need to fully cooperate in large-scale and complex projects to form a mode of army-based operations and comprehensive advancement. In addition, we must also guard against financial risks and intelligence risks.
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